Renewable energy, the naturally occurring energy sources which are replenishable and doesn’t get depleted on its repeated use. Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Hydroelectric Energy, Wave Energy, and Geo-Thermal Energy.
Types of renewable energy sources: –
Solar Energy- This is the source of energy, which is directly obtained from the sunlight. It can be harnessed as solar heating, solar thermal energy, photovoltaics (PV), solar architecture, etc. The worldwide growth of PV is very fast throughout the countries, at the end of 2016, the capacity of cumulative PV reached 303 GW by the increment of 75 GW, which is enough to provide 1.8 percent of the world’s total electricity utilization. As per 2017 reports the continents South America, Asia, North America, and Europe produced 1100MW, 198300MW, 53900 MW and 88000 MW of electricity through solar energy respectively.
Wind Energy– The process of the converting of energy from the air is known as wind energy. It is the process of converting kinetic energy from the air into mechanical energy. When the wind kinetic energy is converted to mechanical energy, in result it rotates the generator blades inducing electricity in the system. At the end of 2016, the production of electricity by wind power rose about to 486,790 MW as compared to 12.5 % increment to last year. As per 2017 reports the continents South America, Asia, North America, and Europe produced 12763MW, 221080MW, 101316MW, and 323676MW of electricity through wind energy respectively.
Hydroelectric Energy– The process of harnessing kinetic energy accumulated in a waterfall from dams like- Hoover Dam or from natural waterfalls into mechanical energy is called Hydroelectric Energy. The kinetic energy of the water rotates the rotor blades to introduce electricity in the electrical system. An only Hoover Dam produces electricity for millions of people. As per 2016 reports the continents South America, Asia, North America, and Europe produced 39.44 Mtoe, 115.85 Mtoe, 53.8 Mtoe and 18.36 Mtoe of electricity through hydroelectric energy respectively.
Geo-Thermal Energy– Geo-Thermal Energy is produced by the hot molten core of the Earth, which is environment-friendly, reliable, cost-effective and sustainable. The hot molten lava is found a few miles beneath to the Earth’s surface called magma. Magma is generally found in the liquid state consisting of molten rocks and iron due to high temperature. With the help of geothermal power plants, electricity production is possible nowadays. The heat of the magma is used to produce steam which in result rotates the generator blades inducing electricity in the system. Geothermal power plants can be categories into three forms: flash steam, binary cycle, and dry steam. As per 2018 reports the continents North America, Asia, Australia, Europe, and Africa produced 4542MW, 5558MW, 1005MW, 1699MW and 676MW of electricity through Geothermal power plants respectively.
Wave Energy– Wind blows produces energy which is called wave power. It can be used for water desalination, electricity generation and pumping water throughout the system. A machine called wave energy converter (WEC) harnesses the wave power. Wave Energy is different from tidal energy, which is responsible for the current form by gravitational exert of sun and moon.
Future scope of Renewable Energy Resources
Due to continuous use of conventional sources of energy resources like coal and petroleum. Conventional sources of energy produce a large amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which in result is causing global warming and resulting in environmental degradation.
Renewable energy resources are abundant and thus can be utilized over and over without its depletion.
Solar Energy and its application in creating electricity are huge as research in an electric car and motor vehicles are on the go as solar energy is clean and green energy which will drastically decrease the amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Wind Mills are being operated nowadays at the coastal areas to harness the power of wind and to generate electricity without causing any pollution.